See also: Appendix:Variations of "le"
- A frequentative suffix of verbs, indicating repetition or continuousness:
- assle, buzzle, crackle, cuddle, dazzle, draggle, drawl, dribble, drizzle, fumble, gamble, grapple, handle, jostle, kissle, jostle, maddle, mingle, nestle, nuzzle, prattle, ramble, rattle, ripple, scribble, sile, sizzle, smartle, sniffle, snuggle, startle, stopple, suckle, tattle, tickle, topple, waggle, whemmle, wiggle, wrestle
From Middle English -el, -le, from Old English -el, -ol (adjective suffix), from Proto-Germanic *-ulaz (adjective suffix). Cognate with West Frisian -el, Dutch -el, Low German -el, German -el.
- A suffix forming adjectives from verbs with the meaning of "prone to", "tending to", "apt to", "capable of"; compare -ative:
- battle, breakle, brittle, fickle, forgettle, little, newfangle, nimble, wankle
From Middle English -el, from Old English -el, -ol, -ul (agent suffix), from Proto-Germanic *-ilaz (agent suffix). Cognate with West Frisian -el, Dutch -el, Low German -el, German -el.
- A suffix forming agent nouns from verbs:
- beadle, beetle, bridle, bundle, cripple, fettle, girdle, ladle, losel, runnel, shovel, spindle, spittle, steeple, stile, stopple, thimble, tool, towel, trundle
From Middle English -el, from Old English -el, -il (diminutive suffix), from Proto-Germanic *-ilaz (diminutive suffix).
- A suffix forming diminutives from other nouns; compare -ling:
- bramble, dimple, dingle, hatchel, hosel, hovel, gomeral, kernel, newel, nozzle, puckle, treddle
► <a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:English_words_suffixed_with_-le'>English words suffixed with -le</a>
terms derived using -le (frequentative)
terms derived using -le (diminutive)
- forms agent noun from verbs
- It is used with verbs ending in -i preceded by a sibilant or -r(r)-. If the sibilant is an affricate, it is reduced to a fricative.
- ikasi 'study' - ikasle 'student'
- idatzi 'write' - idazle 'writer'
- irakurri 'read' - irakurle 'reader'
- For other verbs the alternative form -tzaile is used.
- forms diminutives
- suffix used to create a diminutive form, mostly in Alemannic and Franconian dialects; e.g., Mädchen → Mädle
- Spätzle (plural)
- vocative masculine singular of -lus
From Latin -ae (“first-declension ending”), with intrusive l.
- (plural) -s (feminine/neuter)
- This form of the plural is indefinite, and used for feminine nouns in the nominative/accusative and genitive/dative cases which end in a stressed vowel, or is monosyllabic:
- zile, from zi, fem.
- basmale, from basma, fem.
- cafele, from cafe, fem.
From Latin ille.
- variant of -l
- the (definite article)
This form of the definite article is used for both masculine and neuter singular nouns in the nominative and accusative cases which end in -e:
From Latin illae, nominative feminine plural of ille.
- (definite article) the (feminine/neuter plural, nominative and accusative)
This form of the definite article is used for both feminine and neuter plural nouns in the nominative and accusative cases
Note that this suffix is also added to indefinite feminine plurals in -le:
- zilele, from zile, fem.
- basmalele, from basmale, fem.
- cafelele, from cafele, fem.
The suffix is also used with feminine plural adjectives in the nominative and accusative cases to make the articulated definite form, often for emphasis, and it is used before the noun it modifies:
- caldele plăcinte, from plăcintele calde (both meaning, "the warm pies")
- -l (masculine/neuter singular nominative and accusative)
- -a (feminine singular nominative and accusative)
- -i (masculine/neuter plural nominative and accusative)
- -lui (masculine/neuter singular genitive and dative)
- -ei (feminine singular genitive and dative)
- -lor (plural genitive and dative)
- IPA(key): [ʌl], [əl], [l]
From Middle English -el, -le, from Old English -el, -ol (adjective suffix), from Proto-Germanic *-ulaz (adjective suffix).
- used for forming adjectives signifying 'having a tendency to' or 'able to'; e.g. forgettle, smittle, fodgle
- a contracted form of full; e.g. cairtle (“cartful, cart-load”), cogle (“bowlful”)
From Middle English -elen, -len, -lien, from Old English -lian (frequentative verbal suffix), from Proto-Germanic *-lōną (frequentative verbal suffix).
- frequentative or diminutive suffix, added to verbs
- forms adverbs implying direction towards
- with, shortened form of ile
- annemle okula gidiyorum
- I am going to school with my mother
- by, shortened form of ile
- okula otobüsle gidiyorum
- I am going to school by bus
- If the word's last vowel is "a", "ı", "o" or "u", it becomes "-la".
- babamla ve uçakla - with my father and by plane
- kızımla ve kayıkla - with my daughter and by boat
- oğlumla ve vapurla - with my son and by steamship
- horozla ve motorla - with the rooster and by motorcycle
- If the word ends in a vowel, it becomes "-yle". (If it's a back vowel, "-yla")
- gemiyle - by ship
- sevgiyle - with love
- arabayla - by car
- korkuyla - with fear
- If it's added to a proper noun, it must be used with an apostrophe.
- Zafer'le - with Zafer.
- Emre'yle - with Emre.