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Webster 1913 Edition


Sugar

Sug′ar

,
Noun.
[OE.
sugre
, F.
sucre
(cf. It.
zucchero
, Sp.
azúcar
), fr. Ar.
sukkar
,
assukkar
, fr. Skr.
çarkarā
sugar, gravel; cf. Per.
shakar
. Cf.
Saccharine
,
Sucrose
.]
1.
A sweet white (or brownish yellow) crystalline substance, of a sandy or granular consistency, obtained by crystallizing the evaporated juice of certain plants, as the sugar cane, sorghum, beet root, sugar maple, etc. It is used for seasoning and preserving many kinds of food and drink. Ordinary sugar is essentially sucrose. See the Note below.
☞ The term sugar includes several commercial grades, as the white or refined, granulated, loaf or lump, and the raw brown or muscovado. In a more general sense, it includes several distinct chemical compounds, as the glucoses, or grape sugars (including glucose proper, dextrose, and levulose), and the sucroses, or true sugars (as cane sugar). All sugars are carbohydrates. See
Carbohydrate
. The glucoses, or grape sugars, are ketone alcohols of the formula
C6H12O6
, and they turn the plane of polarization to the right or the left. They are produced from the amyloses and sucroses, as by the action of heat and acids of ferments, and are themselves decomposed by fermentation into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The only sugar (called acrose) as yet produced artificially belongs to this class. The sucroses, or cane sugars, are doubled glucose anhydrides of the formula
C12H22O11
. They are usually not fermentable as such (cf.
Sucrose
), and they act on polarized light.
2.
By extension, anything resembling sugar in taste or appearance;
as,
sugar
of lead (lead acetate), a poisonous white crystalline substance having a sweet taste
.
3.
Compliment or flattery used to disguise or render acceptable something obnoxious; honeyed or soothing words.
[Colloq.]
Acorn sugar
.
See
Quercite
.
Cane sugar
,
sugar made from the sugar cane; sucrose, or an isomeric sugar. See
Sucrose
.
Diabetes sugar
, or
Diabetic sugar
(Med. Chem.)
,
a variety of sugar (grape sugar or dextrose) excreted in the urine in diabetes mellitus; – the presence of such a sugar in the urine is used to diagnose the illness.
Fruit sugar
.
See under
Fruit
, and
Fructose
.
Grape sugar
,
a sirupy or white crystalline sugar (dextrose or glucose) found as a characteristic ingredient of ripe grapes, and also produced from many other sources. See
Dextrose
, and
Glucose
.
Invert sugar
.
See under
Invert
.
Malt sugar
,
a variety of sugar isomeric with sucrose, found in malt. See
Maltose
.
Manna sugar
,
a substance found in manna, resembling, but distinct from, the sugars. See
Mannite
.
Milk sugar
,
a variety of sugar characteristic of fresh milk, and isomeric with sucrose. See
Lactose
.
Muscle sugar
,
a sweet white crystalline substance isomeric with, and formerly regarded to, the glucoses. It is found in the tissue of muscle, the heart, liver, etc. Called also
heart sugar
. See
Inosite
.
Pine sugar
.
See
Pinite
.
Starch sugar
(Com. Chem.)
,
a variety of dextrose made by the action of heat and acids on starch from corn, potatoes, etc.; – called also
potato sugar
,
corn sugar
, and, inaccurately,
invert sugar
. See
Dextrose
, and
Glucose
.
Sugar barek
,
one who refines sugar.
Sugar beet
(Bot.)
,
a variety of beet (
Beta vulgaris
) with very large white roots, extensively grown, esp. in Europe, for the sugar obtained from them.
Sugar berry
(Bot.)
,
the hackberry.
Sugar bird
(Zool.)
,
any one of several species of small South American singing birds of the genera
Coereba
,
Dacnis
, and allied genera belonging to the family
Coerebidae
. They are allied to the honey eaters.
Sugar bush
.
Sugar camp
,
a place in or near a sugar orchard, where maple sugar is made.
Sugar candian
,
sugar candy.
[Obs.]
Sugar candy
,
sugar clarified and concreted or crystallized; candy made from sugar.
Sugar cane
(Bot.)
,
a tall perennial grass (
Saccharum officinarium
), with thick short-jointed stems. It has been cultivated for ages as the principal source of sugar.
Sugar loaf
.
(a)
A loaf or mass of refined sugar, usually in the form of a truncated cone.
(b)
A hat shaped like a sugar loaf.

Why, do not or know you, grannam, and that
sugar loaf
?
J. Webster.
Sugar maple
(Bot.)
,
the rock maple (
Acer saccharinum
). See
Maple
.
Sugar mill
,
a machine for pressing out the juice of the sugar cane, usually consisting of three or more rollers, between which the cane is passed.
Sugar mite
.
(Zool.)
(a)
A small mite (
Tyroglyphus sacchari
), often found in great numbers in unrefined sugar.
(b)
The lepisma.
Sugar of lead
.
See
Sugar
, 2, above.
Sugar of milk
.
See under
Milk
.
Sugar orchard
,
a collection of maple trees selected and preserved for purpose of obtaining sugar from them; – called also, sometimes,
sugar bush
.
[U.S.]
Bartlett.
Sugar pine
(Bot.)
,
an immense coniferous tree (
Pinus Lambertiana
) of California and Oregon, furnishing a soft and easily worked timber. The resinous exudation from the stumps, etc., has a sweetish taste, and has been used as a substitute for sugar.
Sugar squirrel
(Zool.)
,
an Australian flying phalanger (
Belideus sciureus
), having a long bushy tail and a large parachute. It resembles a flying squirrel. See Illust. under
Phlanger
.
Sugar tongs
,
small tongs, as of silver, used at table for taking lumps of sugar from a sugar bowl.
Sugar tree
.
(Bot.)
See
Sugar maple
, above.

Sug′ar

,
Verb.
I.
In making maple sugar, to complete the process of boiling down the sirup till it is thick enough to crystallize; to approach or reach the state of granulation; – with the preposition off.
[Local, U.S.]

Sug′ar

,
Verb.
T.
[
imp. & p. p.
Sugared
;
p. pr. & vb. n.
Sugaring
.]
1.
To impregnate, season, cover, or sprinkle with sugar; to mix sugar with.
“When I sugar my liquor.”
G. Eliot.
2.
To cover with soft words; to disguise by flattery; to compliment; to sweeten;
as, to
sugar
reproof
.
With devotion’s visage
And pious action we do
sugar
o'er
The devil himself.
Shakespeare

Webster 1828 Edition


Sugar

SUGAR

,
Noun.
SHUG'AR. [L. saccharum.]
1.
A well known substance manufactured chiefly from the sugar cane, arundo saccharifera; but in the United States, great quantities of this article are made from the sugar maple; and in France, a few years since, it was extensively manufactured from the beet. The saccharine liquor is concentrated by boiling, which expels the water; lime is added to neutralize the acid that is usually present; the gresser impurities rise to the surface, and are separated in the form of scum; and finally as the liquor cools,the sugar separates from the melasses in grains. The sirup or melasses is drained off, leaving the sugar in the state known in commerce by the name of raw or muscovado sugar. This is farther purified by means of clay, or more extensively by bullocks' blood, which forming a coagulum, envelops the impurities. Thus clarified, it takes the names of lump, loaf, refined, &c. according to the different degrees of purification. Sugar is a proximate element of the vegetable kingdom, and is found in most ripe fruits and many farinaceous roots. By fermentation, sugar is converted into alcohol, and hence forms the basis of those substances which are used for making intoxicating liquors, as melasses, grapes, apples, malt, &c.
The ultimate elements of sugar are oxygen, carbon and hydrogen. Of all vegetable principles, it is considered by Dr. Rush as the most wholesome and nutritious.
2.
A chimical term; as the sugar of lead.

SUGAR

,
Verb.
T.
SHUG'AR. To impregnate, season, cover, sprinkle or mix with sugar.
1.
To sweeten.
But flattery still in sugar'd words betrays.
Sugar of lead, acetate of lead.

Definition 2022


sugar

sugar

See also: sugár

English

Alternative forms

Noun

sugar (countable and uncountable, plural sugars)

  1. (uncountable) Sucrose in the form of small crystals, obtained from sugar cane or sugar beet and used to sweeten food and drink.
    • 1792, Francis Collingwood, The universal cook: and city and country housekeeper:
      To a pound of gooseberries take a pound and a half of double-refined sugar. Clarify the sugar with water, a pint to a pound of sugar, and when the syrup is cold, put the gooseberries single in your preserving pan, put the syrup to them, and set them on a gentle fire.
    • 1895 April 1, “The Present Crisis”, in The Sugar Cane, volume 27, number 309, page 171:
      There appears to be no prospect of success in attempting to combat the crisis by international arrangement, and any improvement in sugar prices can only be looked for from a diminution of the production, either as a consequence of deficient crops, or of a reduction in manufacture.
    • 2013, Robert Paarlberg, Food Politics: What Everyone Needs to Know?:
      Even in extreme cases such as chemical pollution in the Florida Everglades from heavily subsidized sugar farming, strong regulations are routinely blocked by industry.
  2. (countable) A specific variety of sugar.
    • 1915 September 18, “Drying Sugars Essential to Their Preservation”, in The Louisiana Planter and Sugar Manufacturer, volume 55:
      The experience of sugar planters in Louisiana this year in holding their sugars in warehouse for future sales at better prices has revealed again, as it has done heretofore, the fact that the presence of moisture in the sugars is inimical to their maintaining their standard of quality
  3. (countable, chemistry) Any of various small carbohydrates that are used by organisms to store energy.
    • 1942, James E. Kraus, Effects of partial defoliation at transplanting time on subsequent:
      At the end of the second week there were less reducing sugars in the unpruned plants than in the previous week, but those in the pruned plants were the same.
    • 1994, Peter J. Van Soest, Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant:
      Generally speaking, plants have a much greater variety of sugars and linkages than animal tissues have.
    • 1998, A.J. Harborne, Phytochemical Methods A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis:
      The major free sugars in plants are the monosaccharides, glucose and fructose (and the disaccharide sucros), together with traces of xylose, rhamnose and galactose.
    • 2007, Ajit Varma, Plant Surface Microbiology:
      Although H. bertonii relies on scale insects to prepare its parasitism site on plants, it directly absorbs and utilizes plant sugars.
  4. (countable) When used to sweeten a drink, an amount of this substance approximately equal to five grams or one teaspoon.
    • 1916, Cosmo Hamilton, “Miss Fanny Goes to Great Lengths”, in The World To-day: A Monthly Record of Human Progress, volume 30:
      “A slice of lemon and two sugars, please.” “You needn't have said that. I know how you like your tea. I know how you like everything.”
    • 1993, Bill Murray as Phil, Groundhog Day, 1:13:03 from the start:
      Skim milk, two sugar.
    • 2016, Ameera Patel, Outside the Lines:
      Then there are the coffees, one with two sweeteners and no milk, one with one sweetener and milk, one with three sugars and a dash of milk, one with one sugar and lots of milk and finally her Uncle Samad who says that anything is fine.
    He usually has his coffee white with one sugar.
  5. (countable) A term of endearment.
    I'll be with you in a moment, sugar.
  6. (countable, slang) A kiss.
  7. (chiefly southern US, slang, uncountable) Effeminacy in a male, often implying homosexuality.
    • 1998, Lene Østermark-Johansen, Sweetness and Strength, ISBN 1859284523:
      There are depths and heights of beauty in him beyond tears - but there is no sugar, not even any honey.
    • 1999, Peggy J. Rudd, My Husband Wears My Clothes, ISBN 096267625X:
      The crossdresser is showing the desire to be "sugar and spice" through feminine clothing and through the expression of feminine feelings.
    • 2008, Reuben A. Buford May, Living Through the Hoop, ISBN 0814757294:
      Because of Patrick's mannerisms, the players teased him by referring to him as “Sweetness” or saying that he had “sugar” in his pants.
    I think John has a little bit of sugar in him.
  8. (uncountable, informal) Diabetes.
    • 2002, Mrs Sheila Hillier & David Kelleher, Researching Cultural Differences in Health, ISBN 1134832761, page 94:
      One respondent said that he had been told by his doctor that he had 'sugar' and diabetes, thus affirming for him the distinctiveness of the two illnesses. The distinction made sense to some of them as the relationship between diabetes and 'sugar' seemed to relate to their experiences of the West Indies, where 'sugar' was believed to be rare and diabetes common.
    • 2003, Tom Lee, Above All We Ask Or Think, ISBN 1591604249, page 53:
      The veterinarian said his real problem was that he had sugar, and not to concentrate on the problem with his eyes.
    • 2004, Diane M. Parker & Ruth E. Mark, Reflections on a Life with Diabetes: A Memoir in Many Voices, ISBN 1589395964, page 57:
      Don't you love it when you start a new Disease - the pamphlets, the prescriptions, the attention? And the past turning ironic, cloudy, as if you'd added a chemical - my house painter saying he has sugar, reminding me of my mother demanding the sweet drool from every baby.
    • 2008, De'lois Washington McMillan, Suppose Jesus Had Thrown in the Towel and Given Up on Us, ISBN 1438921063:
      The doctor told me I had sugar and would have to take pills.
    • 2012, Bert Fraser-Reid, From Sugar to Splenda, ISBN 3642227813:
      The memorable event was watching my father test urine, his or that of sundry other folks who had “sugar”, as diabetes was known in the rural hills of Jamaica where I grew up.
  9. (by extension, dated) Anything resembling sugar in taste or appearance, especially in chemistry.
    • 1717, M. de Fontenelle, “Upon the Iron of Plants”, in The Lives of the French, Italian and German Philosophers:
      Mons. Lemery is of Opinion that Sweetness proceeds from a close Mixture of an Acid with a Sulphur, or with an Oyl that temperates and corrects it; he supports his Conjecture by the instance of Sugar of Saturn, so called from its Sweetness, which is Lead, a Metal insipid in its self, but very Sulphureous, dissolved by an Acid.
    • 1788, E. Cullen, “Of Magnesia”, in Physical and chemical essays, volume 1, translation of original by Torbern Olof Bergman, page 448:
      The fluor acid, the acid of sugar, of phosphorus, and vitriol, separate magnelia from the acid of arsenic; but the acid of tartar, united with arsenicated magnesia, is generally found to compose a triple salt.
    • 1094, “Process of Making Milk Sugar”, in The American Sugar Industry and Beer Sugar Gazette, volume 6, page 392:
      Sugar of milk is now produced by partly chemical means from milk-whey, the product being about two and a half pounds per hundred pounds of whey.
    Sugar of lead (lead acetate) is a poisonous white crystalline substance with a sweet taste.
  10. Compliment or flattery used to disguise or render acceptable something obnoxious; honeyed or soothing words.
  11. (US, slang) Heroin.

Derived terms

Holonyms

Hyponyms

Translations

Verb

sugar (third-person singular simple present sugars, present participle sugaring, simple past and past participle sugared)

  1. (transitive) To add sugar to; to sweeten with sugar.
    • 1876, Emilie Foster, Teddy and His Friends:
      See, I've put sugar-plums on his coat for fancy buttons, sugared his shirt-frill, and put on a red almond to his hat-front.
    • 1905, “The Duke of Castle Blanco”, in The Quiver, page 1007:
      "There spoke the real British scorn," she said, sugaring her tea, "the fine British contempt for every other nation."
    • 2002, Frank Tallis, Hidden Minds: A History of the Unconscious:
      Moreover, the residents recalled that the aristocrat's pet canary had become like a personal retainer, waking his master in the morning and sugaring his drink.
    John heavily sugars his coffee.
  2. (transitive) To make (something unpleasant) seem less so.
    • 1890, Anson De Puy Van Buren, Michigan in her pioneer politics:
      He also published the "Weekly Recorder," an indefinite title, which was his way of sugaring what soon became in the region where it was published, Mt. Pleasant, Ohio, a very bitter pill.
    • 1917, Mrs. Florence Guertin Tuttle, Give My Love to Maria:
      She shook her head sadly at him. "No, it won't do, Arthur. I'm not in a mood to be sugared."
    • 2001, Graham Fraser, René Lévesque and the Parti Québécois in Power:
      But step by step, aided by Claude Morin's arguments, Lévesque had led the party through the process of sugaring what he saw as the pill of independence.
    She has a gift for sugaring what would otherwise be harsh words.
  3. (US, Canada, regional) In making maple sugar, to complete the process of boiling down the syrup till it is thick enough to crystallize; to approach or reach the state of granulation; with the preposition off.
    • 1851, J. D. H., “On Making Maple Syrup”, in The Ohio Cultivator, volume 7, page 91:
      To sugar off, I prefer using a kettle that will hold about half a. barrel; and boil over a brisk, steady fire, till on dropping some of the syrup into cold water it will break like glass, then dip it into wooden trays to cool, and when it is grained stir it briskly.
    • 1994, “Sugaring Off”, in Nindinawemaagan Giwitaa'ayeyii, volume 6, page 55:
      A long time ago my grandmother and I used to boil maple sap. When she sugared off, I stood there.
    • 2004, Lois Sakany, Canada: A Primary Source Cultural Guide:
      During the spring in Quebec and Ontario, maple syrup is harvested, or "sugared off," a process which is usually celebrated as a social event.
  4. (entomology) To apply sugar to trees or plants in order to catch moths.
    • 1876, W. Sandison, “Note on sugaring”, in The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, volume 12, page 207:
      Some entomologists assert that it is useless to sugar when ivy is in bloom.
    • 1921, Arthur Herbert Savory, Grain and Chaff from an English Manor:
      The latter are best taken by "sugaring" — painting patches of mixed beer and sugar on a series of tree trunks, and making several rounds at twilight with a lantern and a cyanide bottle.
    • 2006, William J. Sutherland, Ecological Census Techniques: A Handbook:
      Sugaring attracts some species of moth that do not readily come to light.

Synonyms

Derived terms

Translations

Interjection

sugar

  1. (informal, euphemistic) Used in place of ****!
    • 1920, James A. Cooper, Tobias O' the Light: A Story of Cape Cod:
      "Oh, sugar! I suppose that's so," reflected Tobias, filling his pipe.
    • 2007, Melinda Henneberger, If They Only Listened to Us: What Women Voters Want Politicians to Hear:
      But they do not even hope for such a thing in '08, and fear far worse: Sister Suzanne Thibault, a lifelong Republican so mild she shouts, “Oh, sugar!” when annoyed, posits that if Hillary Clinton were nominated, “She'd get killed, literally assassinated. We have too many right-wing people out there who would do that."
    • 2012, Macy Beckett, Sultry with a Twist:
      “Oh, sugar.” His room was empty.
    Oh, sugar!

Translations

See also

Anagrams


Basque

Etymology

From su + gar.

Noun

sugar

  1. flame

Ido

Verb

sugar (present tense sugas, past tense sugis, future tense sugos, imperative sugez, conditional sugus)

  1. (transitive) to suck

Conjugation


Latin

Verb

sūgar

  1. first-person singular future passive indicative of sūgō

Portuguese

Etymology

From Vulgar Latin *sucāre, from Latin sugere, present active infinitive of sugō, from Proto-Indo-European *sug-, *suk-.

Verb

sugar (first-person singular present indicative sugo, past participle sugado)

  1. to suck

Conjugation


Romanian

Etymology

From suge (to suck) + -ar. Compare Dalmatian sugol (lamb).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /suˈɡar/

Adjective

sugar m, n (feminine singular sugară, masculine plural sugari, feminine and neuter plural sugare)

  1. suckling-

Declension

Noun

sugar m (plural sugari, feminine equivalent sugară)

  1. unweaned baby, newborn
  2. suckling, young mammal that hasn't weaned yet

Declension

Synonyms


Venetian

Etymology

From Latin exsūcāre, present active infinitive of exsūcō (I juice; I dry) (compare Italian asciugare).

Verb

sugar

  1. (transitive) to wipe, dry

Conjugation

  • Venetian conjugation varies from one region to another. Hence, the following conjugation should be considered as typical, not as exhaustive.

Related terms