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Definition 2022


U+540E, 后
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-540E

[U+540D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+540F]
See also:

Translingual

Stroke order

Han character

(radical 30 +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 竹一口 (HMR), four-corner 72261, composition𠂋)

References

  • KangXi: page 176, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3298
  • Dae Jaweon: page 393, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 580, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+540E

Chinese

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*koːʔ
*koːʔ, *kʰoːs, *qʰoːs
*koːʔ
*koːs
*ɡoː
*ɡoː
*ɡoːʔ, *ɡoːs
*ɡoːʔ
*ɡoːʔ
*ɡoːs
*ɡoːs
缿 *ɡoːs, *ɡroːŋʔ

Lateral inversion of generates (OC *slɯ).

Etymology 1

simp. and trad.

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m/s-gaw (head). Cognate with Tibetan གོ (go, head; headman), མགོ (mgo, head, top, beginning).

Pronunciation



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (33) (33)
Final () (137) (137)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦəuX/ /ɦəuH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦəuX/ /ɦəuH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣəuX/ /ɣəuH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦəwX/ /ɦəwH/
Li
Rong
/ɣuX/ /ɣuH/
Wang
Li
/ɣəuX/ /ɣəuH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣə̯uX/ /ɣə̯uH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hòu hòu
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
hòu
Middle
Chinese
‹ huwX ›
Old
Chinese
/*ɢˤ(r)oʔ/
English sovereign; queen

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 5168 5172
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
𠋫
Old
Chinese
/*ɡoːʔ/ /*ɡoːs/

Definitions

  1. king; ruler; emperor
  2. queen; empress
       wánghòu   queen

Compounds

  • 皇天后土 (huángtiān hòutǔ)
  • 皇太后 (huángtàihòu)
  • 稱王封后称王封后
  • 竇太后窦太后
  • 群后
  • 蕭太后萧太后
  • 西后
  • 西太后
  • 賀后罵殿贺后骂殿
  • 賈后贾后
  • 韋后韦后
  • 風后风后
  • 馬后練服马后练服
  • 齊后破環齐后破环

Etymology 2

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“after”).
(This character, , is the simplified form of .)
Notes:

Japanese

Kanji

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. empress, queen

Readings

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
きさき
Grade: 6
kun'yomi

Unknown. Possibly originally a contraction of (kimi saki, literally lordly good fortune).

Pronunciation

Alternative forms

Noun

(hiragana きさき, romaji kisaki)

  1. queen, empress
Synonyms

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
きさい
Grade: 6
kun'yomi

/kisaki//kisai/

Sound shift from kisaki above. Appears to be less common in isolation than the kisaki reading above.[2][1]

Pronunciation

Alternative forms

Noun

(hiragana きさい, romaji kisai)

  1. queen, empress

References

  1. 1 2 3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean

Hanja

(hu) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer hu, Yale hwu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese

Han character

(hậu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.