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Definition 2023


U+571F, 土
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-571F

[U+571E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5720]
See also: and ±

Translingual

Stroke order

Han character

(radical 32 土+0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 土 (G), four-corner 40100)

  1. Kangxi radical #32, (earth).

Derived characters

  • Index:Chinese radical/土

References

  • KangXi: page 223, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 4867
  • Dae Jaweon: page 453, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 415, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+571F

Chinese

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɦljaːʔ
*ʔl'aːʔ, *l'aːʔ
*l̥ʰaːʔ, *l'aːʔ
*l̥ʰaːʔ, *l̥ʰaːs
*l̥ʰaːʔ
*l'aːʔ
*l'aːʔ
*l'aːʔ

Pictogram (象形) : a lump of clay on a potter’s wheel.

Pronunciation



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /tʰu²¹⁴/
Harbin /tʰu²¹³/
Tianjin /tʰu¹³/
Jinan /tʰu⁵⁵/
Qingdao /tʰu⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /tʰu⁵³/
Xi'an /tʰu⁵³/
Xining /tʰv̩⁵³/
Yinchuan /tʰu⁵³/
Lanzhou /tʰu⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /tʰu⁵¹/
Wuhan /tʰəu⁴²/
Chengdu /tʰu⁵³/
Guiyang /tʰu⁴²/
Kunming /tʰu⁵³/
Nanjing /tʰu²¹²/
Hefei /tʰu²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /tʰu⁵³/
Pingyao /tʰu⁵³/
Hohhot /tʰu⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /tʰu³⁵/
Suzhou /tʰəu⁵¹/
Hangzhou /tʰu⁵³/
Wenzhou /tʰøy³⁵/
Hui Shexian /tʰu³⁵/
Tunxi /tʰəu³¹/
Xiang Changsha /tʰəu⁴¹/
Xiangtan /tʰəɯ⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /tʰu²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /tʰu³¹/
Taoyuan /tʰu³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /tʰou³⁵/
Nanning /tʰu³⁵/
Hong Kong /tʰou³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tʰɔ⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /tʰu³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tʰu²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /tʰou⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hɔu³¹/ 訓途
/hɔu²¹³/ ~產

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (6) (7)
Final () (23) (23)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tʰuoX/ /duoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/tʰuoX/ /duoX/
Shao
Rongfen
/tʰoX/ /doX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tʰɔX/ /dɔX/
Li
Rong
/tʰoX/ /doX/
Wang
Li
/tʰuX/ /duX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tʰuoX/ /dʱuoX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ thuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*tʰˤaʔ/
English earth

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 12499 12503
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*l̥ʰaːʔ/ /*l'aːʔ/

Definitions

  1. earth, soil
    這兒 / 这儿   Zhèr de gòu féi de.   The soil here is quite fertile.
  2. clay
  3. crude opium
  4. local, native, indigenous
    土著 (tǔzhù, “aboriginal”)
  5. rustic, unsophisticated
  6. A surname.
  7. the Tujia ethnic group (土家族)

Descendants

Sino-Xenic ():
Compounds

References


Japanese

Kanji

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings

Compounds

Kanji in this term
つち
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Etymology

From Old Japanese.[1][2]

Pronunciation

Alternative forms

Noun

(hiragana つち, romaji tsuchi)

  1. earth; soil; mud
  2. the ground

Derived terms

References

  1. 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 1 2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean

Hanja

(to, du)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul): ,  (McCune-Reischauer: t'o, tu, Yale: tho, twu)
  • Name (hangeul): , 뿌리 (revised: heulk, ppuri, McCune-Reischauer: hŭk, ppuri, Yale: hulk, ppuli)
  • Compounds
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Noun

(to) (hangeul )

  1. earth
  2. (As an abbreviation) Saturday

Vietnamese

Han character

(thổ, tiên)

  1. earth, land
  2. soil
  3. A name
  4. (As an abbreviation) arrogance