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Definition 2022


Translingual

Han character

(radical 61 +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 心竹手一 (PHQM), four-corner 95010, composition)

References

  • KangXi: page 381, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10478
  • Dae Jaweon: page 710, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2286, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+6027

Chinese

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sʰlɯː
*sʰleːns
*sʰleːns, *ʔsreːŋ
*sʰleːns, *sʰleŋs
*sʰleːns
*sʰeːns
*sʰeːns
*sʰleːŋ, *sreŋs
*sreŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋ, *sleːŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋ, *sreŋs
*sreŋ, *seːŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋʔ
*sreŋs
*zreːŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *ʔsleŋs
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *sʰleːŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *sʰleːŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *zleŋs, *zleŋʔ
*ʔsleŋ, *sʰleŋʔ
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*sʰleŋ
*sʰleŋ
*sʰleŋʔ, *zleŋs, *zleŋ
*sʰleŋs
*zleŋs, *zleŋ
*zleŋs
*zleŋ
*zleŋ
*zleŋ
*zleŋʔ
*zleŋʔ
*seŋʔ, *seːŋs
*seŋʔ, *seːŋ
*sleŋs
*sleŋs
*l̥ʰeŋs
*ʔljeŋ, *sʰleːŋ
*sʰleːŋ
*sʰleːŋ, *sʰleːŋs
*sʰleːŋs
*sleːŋ
*sleːŋ
*sleːŋ
*sleːŋ
*seːŋ, *seːŋs
*seːŋ
*seːŋ, *seːŋʔ, *seːŋs
*seːŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *sleŋs) : semantic  (heart) + phonetic  (OC *sʰleːŋ, *sreŋs) – nature, personal quality, hence of the heart.

Pronunciation



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (121)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/siᴇŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/siɛŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/siæŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/siajŋH/
Li
Rong
/siɛŋH/
Wang
Li
/sĭɛŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/si̯ɛŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xìng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xìng
Middle
Chinese
‹ sjengH ›
Old
Chinese
/*seŋ-s/
English nature

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11358
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sleŋs/

Noun

  1. nature, character
  2. sex, gender
  3. sexual intercourse
  4. Suffix forming nouns and adjectives, denoting qualities.

Compounds


Japanese

Kanji

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. one's nature
  2. characteristic
  3. sex, gender
  4. content

Readings

Compounds

References

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
しょう
Grade: 5
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (sjengH, nature of something, inherent quality).

The goon, so the initial borrowing.

Pronunciation

Noun

(hiragana しょう, romaji shō, historical hiragana しやう)

  1. the nature of something

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
せい
Grade: 5
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (sjengH, nature of something, inherent quality).

The kan'on, so a later borrowing.

Pronunciation

Noun

(hiragana せい, romaji sei)

  1. sex, gender
  2. (grammar) gender
Synonyms

Suffix

(hiragana せい, romaji -sei)

  1. -ity, -ness, the nature of quality or something

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
さが
Grade: 5
kun'yomi

Probably from Old Japanese, although the ultimate derivation is unknown. Appears in The Tale of Genji and The Tales of Ise of the Heian period.[3]

Pronunciation

Alternative forms

Noun

(hiragana さが, romaji saga)

  1. one's nature
  2. characteristic
Synonyms

References

  1. 1 2 3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 1 2 3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  3. 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean

Hanja

(seong) (hangeul , revised seong, McCune-Reischauer sŏng, Yale seng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese

Han character

(tính, dính, tánh)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.