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Webster 1913 Edition


Abstract

Ab′stractˊ

(#; 277)
,
Adj.
[L.
abstractus
, p. p. of
abstrahere
to draw from, separate;
ab
,
abs
+
trahere
to draw. See
Trace
.]
1.
Withdraw; separate.
[Obs.]
The more
abstract
. . . we are from the body.
Norris.
2.
Considered apart from any application to a particular object; separated from matter; existing in the mind only;
as,
abstract
truth,
abstract
numbers
. Hence: ideal; abstruse; difficult.
3.
(Logic)
(a)
Expressing a particular property of an object viewed apart from the other properties which constitute it; – opposed to
concrete
;
as, honesty is an
abstract
word
.
J. S. Mill.
(b)
Resulting from the mental faculty of abstraction; general as opposed to particular;
as, “reptile” is an
abstract
or general name
.
Locke.
A concrete name is a name which stands for a thing; an
abstract
name which stands for an attribute of a thing. A practice has grown up in more modern times, which, if not introduced by Locke, has gained currency from his example, of applying the expression “
abstract
name” to all names which are the result of abstraction and generalization, and consequently to all general names, instead of confining it to the names of attributes.
J. S. Mill.
4.
Abstracted; absent in mind.
Abstract, as in a trance.”
Milton.
An abstract idea
(Metaph.)
,
an idea separated from a complex object, or from other ideas which naturally accompany it; as the solidity of marble when contemplated apart from its color or figure.
Abstract terms
,
those which express abstract ideas, as beauty, whiteness, roundness, without regarding any object in which they exist; or abstract terms are the names of orders, genera or species of things, in which there is a combination of similar qualities.
Abstract numbers
(Math.)
,
numbers used without application to things, as 6, 8, 10; but when applied to any thing, as 6 feet, 10 men, they become concrete.
Abstract mathematics
or
Pure mathematics
.

Ab-stract′

,
Verb.
T.
[
imp. & p. p.
Abstracted
;
p. pr. & vb. n.
Abstracting
.]
[See
Abstract
,
Adj.
]
1.
To withdraw; to separate; to take away.
He was incapable of forming any opinion or resolution
abstracted
from his own prejudices.
Sir W. Scott.
2.
To draw off in respect to interest or attention;
as, his was wholly
abstracted
by other objects
.
The young stranger had been
abstracted
and silent.
Blackw. Mag.
3.
To separate, as ideas, by the operation of the mind; to consider by itself; to contemplate separately, as a quality or attribute.
Whately.
4.
To epitomize; to abridge.
Franklin.
5.
To take secretly or dishonestly; to purloin;
as, to
abstract
goods from a parcel, or money from a till
.
Von Rosen had quietly
abstracted
the bearing-reins from the harness.
W. Black.
6.
(Chem.)
To separate, as the more volatile or soluble parts of a substance, by distillation or other chemical processes. In this sense extract is now more generally used.

Ab-stract′

,
Verb.
T.
To perform the process of abstraction.
[R.]
I own myself able to
abstract
in one sense.
Berkeley.

Ab′stractˊ

,
Noun.
[See
Abstract
,
Adj.
]
1.
That which comprises or concentrates in itself the essential qualities of a larger thing or of several things. Specifically: A summary or an epitome, as of a treatise or book, or of a statement; a brief.
An
abstract
of every treatise he had read.
Watts.
Man, the
abstract

Of all perfection, which the workmanship
Of Heaven hath modeled.
Ford.
2.
A state of separation from other things;
as, to consider a subject in the
abstract
, or apart from other associated things
.
3.
An abstract term.
The concretes “father” and “son” have, or might have, the
abstracts
“paternity” and “filiety.”
J. S. Mill.
Syn. – Abridgment; compendium; epitome; synopsis. See
Abridgment
.

Webster 1828 Edition


Abstract

ABSTRACT'

,
Verb.
T.
[L. abstraho, to draw from or separate; from abs and traho, which is the Eng. draw. See Draw.]
1.
To draw from, or to separate; as to abstract an action from its evil effects; to abstract spirit from any substance by distillation; but in this sense extract is now more generally used.
2.
To separate ideas by the operation of the mind; to consider one part of a complex object, or to have a partial idea of it in the mind.
3.
To select or separate the substance of a book or writing; to epitomize or reduce to a summary.
4.
In chimistry, to separate, as the more volatile parts of a substance by repeated distillation, or at least by distillation.

Definition 2021


Abstract

Abstract

See also: abstract

German

Noun

Abstract m (genitive Abstracts, plural Abstracts)

  1. abstract

Declension

abstract

abstract

See also: Abstract

English

Noun

abstract (plural abstracts)

  1. An abridgement or summary of a longer publication. [First attested around 1350 to 1470.][1]
    • Isaac Watts — An abstract of every treatise he had read.
  2. Something that concentrates in itself the qualities of larger item, or multiple items. [First attested in the mid 16th century.][1]
    • Ford — Man, the abstract Of all perfection, which the workmanship Of Heaven hath modeled.
    1. Concentrated essence of a product.
    2. (medicine) A powdered solid extract of a medicinal substance mixed with lactose.[2]
  3. An abstraction; an abstract term; that which is abstract. [First attested in the mid 16th century.][1]
  4. The theoretical way of looking at things; something that exists only in idealized form. [First attested in the early 17th century.][1]
  5. (art) An abstract work of art. [First attested in the early 20th century.]
  6. (real estate) A summary title of the key points detailing a tract of land, for ownership; abstract of title.

Usage notes

  • (theoretical way of looking at things): Preceded, typically, by the.

Synonyms

Derived terms

Translations

Adjective

abstract (comparative more abstract or abstracter, superlative most abstract or abstractest)[3]

  1. (obsolete) Derived; extracted. [Attested from around 1350 to 1470 until the late 15th century.][1]
  2. (now rare) Drawn away; removed from; apart from; separate. [First attested around 1350 to 1470.][1]
    • 17th century, John Norris (philosopher), The Oxford Dictionary:
      The more abstract we are from the body ... the more fit we shall be to behold divine light.
  3. Expressing a property or attribute separately of an object that is considered to be inherent to that object. [First attested around 1350 to 1470.][1]
  4. Considered apart from any application to a particular object; not concrete; ideal; non-specific; general, as opposed to specific. [First attested around 1350 to 1470.][1]
    • John Stuart Mill - A concrete name is a name which stands for a thing; an abstract name which stands for an attribute of a thing. A practice has grown up in more modern times, which, if not introduced by Locke, has gained currency from his example, of applying the expression "abstract name" to all names which are the result of abstraction and generalization, and consequently to all general names, instead of confining it to the names of attributes.
  5. Difficult to understand; abstruse; hard to conceptualize. [First attested around 1350 to 1470.][1]
  6. (archaic) Absent-minded. [First attested in the early 16th century.][1]
  7. (art) Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them. [First attested in the mid 19th century.][1]
    1. (art, often capitalized) Free from representational qualities, in particular the non-representational styles of the 20th century. [First attested in the mid 19th century.][1]
    2. (music) Absolute.
    3. (dance) Lacking a story.
  8. Insufficiently factual.[3]
  9. Apart from practice or reality; vague; theoretical; impersonal; not applied.
  10. (grammar) As a noun, denoting an intangible as opposed to an object, place, or person.
  11. (computing) Of a class in object-oriented programming, being a partial basis for subclasses rather than a complete template for objects.

Synonyms

Antonyms

Derived terms

Translations

See also

Verb

abstract (third-person singular simple present abstracts, present participle abstracting, simple past and past participle abstracted)

  1. (transitive) To separate; to disengage. [First attested around 1350 to 1470.][1]
    • Walter Scott - He was incapable of forming any opinion or resolution abstracted from his own prejudices.
  2. (transitive) To remove; to take away; withdraw. [First attested in the late 15th century.][1]
    • 1834, Harriet Martineau, Illustration of Political Economy, volume IX:
      The lightning of the public burdens, which at present abstract a large proportion of profits and wages.
    • Sir Walter Scott
      He was incapable of forming any opinion or resolution abstracted from his own prejudices.
  3. (transitive, euphemistic) To steal; to take away; to remove without permission. [First attested in the late 15th century.][1]
    • W. Black - Von Rosen had quietly abstracted the bearing-reins from the harness.
  4. (transitive) To summarize; to abridge; to epitomize. [First attested in the late 16th century.][1]
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Franklin to this entry?)
  5. (transitive, obsolete) To extract by means of distillation. [Attested from the early 17th century until the early 18th century.][1]
    • 1601, John Marston, Antonio's Revenge, Act II, Scene I:
      Poison from roses who could e'er abstract?
  6. (transitive) To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality. [First attested in the early 17th century.][1]
  7. (intransitive, reflexive, literally figuratively) To withdraw oneself; to retire. [First attested in the mid 17th century.][1]
  8. (transitive) To draw off (interest or attention).
    • William Blackwood, Blackwood's Magazine - The young stranger had been abstracted and silent.
    He was wholly abstracted by other objects.
  9. (intransitive, rare) To perform the process of abstraction.
  10. (intransitive, fine arts) To create abstractions.
  11. (intransitive, computing) To produce an abstraction, usually by refactoring existing code. Generally used with "out".
    He abstracted out the square root function.

Usage notes

  • (to separate or disengage): Followed by the word from.
  • (to withdraw oneself): Followed by the word from.
  • (to summarize): Pronounced predominately as /ˈæbˌstrækt/.
  • All other senses are pronounced as /æbˈstrækt/.

Synonyms

Derived terms

Related terms

Translations

References

  • abstract in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913
  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Lesley Brown (editor), The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 5th edition (Oxford University Press, 2003 [1933], ISBN 978-0-19-860575-7), page 10
  2. Thomas, Clayton L., editor (1940) Taber's Encyclopedic Medical Dictionary, 5th edition, Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company, ISBN 0-8036-8313-8, published 1993, page 14
  3. 1 2 Philip Babcock Gove (editor), Webster's Third International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (G. & C. Merriam Co., 1976 [1909], ISBN 0-87779-101-5), page 8

Dutch

Pronunciation

Adjective

abstract (comparative abstracter, superlative abstractst)

  1. abstract
  2. (art) abstract

Inflection

Inflection of abstract
uninflected abstract
inflected abstracte
comparative abstracter
positive comparative superlative
predicative/adverbial abstract abstracter het abstractst
het abstractste
indefinite m./f. sing. abstracte abstractere abstractste
n. sing. abstract abstracter abstractste
plural abstracte abstractere abstractste
definite abstracte abstractere abstractste
partitive abstracts abstracters

Antonyms


Romanian

Etymology

From literary Latin abstractus, German Abstrakt.

Pronunciation

Adjective

abstract m, n (feminine singular abstractă, masculine plural abstracți, feminine and neuter plural abstracte)

  1. abstract

Antonyms

Related terms

References

  1. http://www.pruteanu.ro/4doarovorba/doom.htm