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Webster 1913 Edition


And

And

,
c
onj.
[AS.
and
; akin to OS.
endi
, Icel.
enda
, OHG.
anti
,
enti
,
inti
,
unti
, G.
und
, D.
en
, OD.
ende
. Cf,
An
if,
Ante-
.]
1.
A particle which expresses the relation of connection or addition. It is used to conjoin a word with a word, a clause with a clause, or a sentence with a sentence.
(b) By a rhetorical figure, notions, one of which is modificatory of the other, are connected by and; as, “the tediousness and process of my travel,” that is, the tedious process, etc.; “thy fair and outward character,” that is, thy outwardly fair character,
Schmidt’s Shak. Lex.
2.
In order to; – used instead of the infinitival to, especially after try, come, go.
At least to try
and
teach the erring soul.
Milton.
3.
It is sometimes, in old songs, a mere expletive.
When that I was
and
a little tiny boy.
Shakespeare
4.
If; though. See
An
,
c
onj.
[Obs.]
Chaucer.
As they will set an house on fire,
and
it were but to roast their eggs.
Bacon.
And so forth
,
and others; and the rest; and similar things; and other things or ingredients. The abbreviation, etc. (et cetera), or &c., is usually read and so forth.

Webster 1828 Edition


And

AND

, conj.
And is a conjunction, connective or conjoining word. It signifies that a word or part of a sentence is to be added to what precedes. Thus, give me an apple and an orange; that is, give me an apple, add or give in addition to that, an orange. John and Peter and James rode to New York, that is, John rode to New York; add or further, Peter rode to New York; add James rode to New York.

Definition 2021


And

And

See also: Appendix:Variations of "and"

Translingual

Alternative forms

  • And.

Proper noun

And

  1. (astronomy) Abbreviation of Andromeda Constellation.
  2. (astronomy) Abbreviation of Andromeda Galaxy.
  3. (astronomy) Abbreviation of Andromedae.
  4. (astronomy) Abbreviation of Andromeda.

and

and

See also: And, AND, ånd, -and, and-, -ând, and Appendix:Variations of "and"

English

Alternative forms

Conjunction

and

  1. As a coordinating conjunction; expressing two elements to be taken together or in addition to each other.
    1. Used simply to connect two noun phrases, adjectives or adverbs. [from 8th c.]
      • c. 1430 (reprinted 1888), Thomas Austin, ed., Two Fifteenth-century Cookery-books. Harleian ms. 279 (ab. 1430), & Harl. ms. 4016 (ab. 1450), with Extracts from Ashmole ms. 1429, Laud ms. 553, & Douce ms. 55 [Early English Text Society, Original Series; 91], London: N. Trübner & Co. for the Early English Text Society, volume I, OCLC 374760, page 11:
        Soupes dorye. — Take gode almaunde mylke [] caste þher-to Safroun an Salt []
      • 1611, Bible (KJV), Genesis 1:1::
        In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
      • 1817, Jane Austen, Persuasion:
        as for Mrs. Smith, she had claims of various kinds to recommend her quickly and permanently.
      • 2011, Mark Townsend, The Guardian, 5 November:
        ‘The UKBA has some serious explaining to do if it is routinely carrying out such abusive and unlawful inspections.’
    2. Simply connecting two clauses or sentences. [from 8th c.]
      • 1991, Jung Chang, Wild Swans:
        When she saw several boys carrying a huge wooden case full of porcelain, she mumbled to Jinming that she was going to have a look, and left the room.
      • 2011, Helena Smith & Tom Kington, The Guardian, 5 November:
        "Consensus is essential for the country," he said, adding that he was not "tied" to his post and was willing to step aside.
    3. Introducing a clause or sentence which follows on in time or consequence from the first. [from 9th c.]
      • 1996, David Beasley, Chocolate for the Poor:
        ‘But if you think you can get it, Christian, you're a fool. Set one foot upcountry and I'll kill you.’
      • 2004, Will Buckley, The Observer:, 22 August:
        One more error and all the good work she had done on Friday would be for nought.
    4. (obsolete) Yet; but. [10th-17th c.]
      • 1611, Authorised (King James) Version, Bible, Matthew XXII:
        Hee said, I goe sir, and went not.
    5. Used to connect certain numbers: connecting units when they precede tens (not dated); connecting tens and units to hundreds, thousands etc. (now often omitted in US); to connect fractions to wholes. [from 10th c.]
      • 1863, Abraham Lincoln, ‘Gettysburg Address’:
        Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that "all men are created equal".
      • 1906, Upton Sinclair, The Jungle, Chapter 26
        In Chicago these latter were receiving, for the most part, eighteen and a half cents an hour, and the unions wished to make this the general wage for the next year.
      • 1956, Dodie Smith, (title):
        The One Hundred and One Dalmatians.
    6. (now colloquial or literary) Used to connect more than two elements together in a chain, sometimes to stress the number of elements.
      • 1623, William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, First Folio, II.2:
        And these does she apply, for warnings and portents, / And euils imminent; and on her knee / Hath begg'd, that I will stay at home to day.
      • 1939, Langley, Ryerson & Woolf, The Wizard of Oz (screenplay):
        Lions, and tigers, and bears! Oh, my!
    7. Connecting two identical elements, with implications of continued or infinite repetition. [from 10th c.]
      • 1611, Authorised (King James) Version, Bible, Psalms CXLV:
        I will extol thee, my God, O king; and I will bless thy name for ever and ever.
      • 2011, Jonathan Watts, The Guardian, 18 March:
        He was at work in a nearby city when the tsunami struck. ‘As soon as I saw it, I called home. It rang and rang, but there was no answer.’
    8. Introducing a parenthetical or explanatory clause. [from 10th c.]
      • 1918, George W. E. Russell, Prime Ministers and Some Others:
        The word "capable" occurs in Mr. Fisher's Bill, and rightly, because our mental and physical capacities are infinitely varied.
      • 2008, The Guardian, 29 Jan 2008:
        President Pervez Musharraf is undoubtedly sincere in his belief that he, and he alone, can save Pakistan from the twin perils of terrorism and anarchy.
    9. Introducing the continuation of narration from a previous understood point; also used alone as a question: ‘and so what?’.
      • 1611, Authorised (King James) Version, Bible, Revelation XIV:
        And I heard a voice from heaven, as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of a great thunder: and I heard the voice of harpers harping with their harps [].
      • 1861, Charles Dickens, Great Expectations:
        ‘You take it smoothly now,’ said I, ‘but you were very serious last night, when you swore it was Death.’ ‘And so I swear it is Death,’ said he, putting his pipe back in his mouth [].
      • 1914, Saki, ‘The Lull’, Beasts and Superbeasts:
        And, Vera,’ added Mrs. Durmot, turning to her sixteen-year-old niece, ‘be careful what colour ribbon you wear in your hair [].’
    10. (now regional or somewhat colloquial) Used to connect two verbs where the second is dependent on the first: ‘to’. Used especially after come, go and try. [from 14th c.]
      • 1817, Jane Austen, Sanditon:
        Beyond paying her a few charming compliments and amusing her with gay conversation, had he done anything at all to try and gain her affection?
      • 1989, James Kelman, A Disaffection:
        Remember and help yourself to the soup! called Gavin.
    11. Introducing a qualitative difference between things having the same name; "as well as other". [from 16th c.]
      • 1936, The Labour Monthly, vol. XVIII:
        Undoubtedly every party makes mistakes. But there are mistakes and mistakes.
      • 1972, Esquire, vol. LXXVIII:
        "There are managers and there are managers," he tells me. "I'm totally involved in every aspect of Nina's career."
    12. Used to combine numbers in addition; plus (with singular or plural verb). [from 17th c.]
      • 1791, James Boswell, Life of Samuel Johnson:
        ‘Nobody attempts to dispute that two and two make four: but with contests concerning moral truth, human passions are generally mixed [].’
      • 1871, Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There:
        ‘Can you do Addition?’ the White Queen asked. ‘What's one and one and one and one and one and one and one and one and one and one?’
  2. (heading) Expressing a condition.
    1. (now US dialect) If; provided that. [from 13th c.]
      • 1485, Sir Thomas Malory, Le Morte Darthur, Book VII:
        "Where ys Sir Launcelot?" seyde King Arthure. "And he were here, he wolde nat grucche to do batayle for you."
      • 1526, William Tyndale, trans. Bible, Matthew XIV:
        Peter answered, and sayde: master, and thou be he, bidde me come unto the on the water.
      • 1958, Shirley Ann Grau, The Hard Blue Sky:
        "And he went slower," Mike said softly, "he go better."
    2. (obsolete) As if, as though. [15th-17th c.]
      • 1600, William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream, I.2:
        I will roare you, and 'twere any Nightingale.
    3. (obsolete) Even though.
      • Francis Bacon
        As they will set an house on fire, and it were but to roast their eggs.
Quotations
  • For usage examples of this term, see Citations:and.
Usage notes
Synonyms
Translations

Etymology 2

From Middle English ande, from Old English anda (grudge, enmity, malice, envy, hatred, anger, zeal, annoyance, vexation; zeal; injury, mischief; fear, horror) and Old Norse andi (breath, wind, spirit); both from Proto-Germanic *andô (breath, anger, zeal), from Proto-Indo-European *ane- (to breathe, blow). Cognate with German Ahnd, And (woe, grief), Danish ånde (breath), Swedish anda, ande (spirit, breath, wind, ingenuity, intellect), Icelandic andi (spirit), Latin animus (spirit, soul). Related to onde.

Alternative forms

Noun

and (plural ands)

  1. (Britain dialectal) Breath.
  2. (Britain dialectal) Sea-mist; water-smoke.

Etymology 3

From Middle English anden, from Old English andian (to be envious or jealous, envy) and Old Norse anda (to breathe); both from Proto-Germanic *andōną (to breathe, sputter). Cognate with German ahnden (to avenge, punish), Danish ånde (to breathe), Swedish andas (to breathe), Icelandic anda (to breathe). See above.

Alternative forms

Verb

and (third-person singular simple present ands, present participle anding, simple past and past participle anded)

  1. (Britain dialectal, intransitive) To breathe; whisper; devise; imagine.

Statistics

Most common English words before 1923: the · of · #3: and · to · in · I

Anagrams


Danish

Etymology

From Old Norse ǫnd, from Proto-Germanic *anudz, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂enh₁-ti- (duck).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /and/, [anˀ]

Noun

and c (singular definite anden, plural indefinite ænder)

  1. duck
  2. canard (false or misleading report or story)

Inflection


Estonian

Etymology

From the root of andma. Cognate with Finnish anti.

Noun

and (genitive anni, partitive andi)

  1. offering, gift
  2. alms, donation
  3. giftedness, talent
  4. act of giving

Declension


Gothic

Romanization

and

  1. Romanization of 𐌰𐌽𐌳

Norwegian Bokmål

Etymology

From Old Norse ǫnd, from Proto-Germanic *anudz, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂enh₁-ti- (duck).

Pronunciation

Noun

and m, f (definite singular anda or anden, indefinite plural ender, definite plural endene)

  1. duck
  2. canard (false or misleading report or story)

Norwegian Nynorsk

Etymology

From Old Norse ǫnd, from Proto-Germanic *anudz, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂enh₁-ti- (duck).

Noun

and f (definite singular anda, indefinite plural ender, definite plural endene)

  1. a duck (waterbird)

Old English

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *anda, *andi, probably from Proto-Indo-European *h₂énti (facing opposite, near, in front of, before). Compare Old Frisian and, Old Saxon endi, Old High German unti, Old Norse enn.

Pronunciation

Conjunction

and

  1. and

Synonyms

Descendants

Adverb

and

  1. even; also

Old Frisian

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *andi, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂énti (facing opposite, near, in front of, before). Compare Old English and, Old Saxon endi, Old High German unti, Old Norse enn.

Conjunction

and

  1. and

Descendants

  • North Frisian: en
  • West Frisian: en, in

Scots

Conjunction

and

  1. Alternative form of an

Swedish

Etymology

From Old Norse ǫnd, from Proto-Germanic *anudz, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂énh₂t- (duck).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /and/

Noun

and c

  1. a wild duck

Declension

Inflection of and 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative and anden änder änderna
Genitive ands andens änders ändernas

Related terms

See also

  • anka (domesticated duck)

References